Complement : Proactive airline safety programs

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Line Operations Safety

Audit In a Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA), highly trained observers ride in the jumpseat of an air carrier during routine scheduled flights for the purpose of collecting safety-related data on flightcrew performance, environmental conditions, and operational factors (FAA, 2006d). The program relies on confidential data collection and non-jeopardy for flight crewmembers; that is, assurance that action will not be taken against those individuals observed to commit errors.

LOSA is based on a Threat and Error Management (TEM) model, which is a conceptual framework for understanding operational performance in complex environments such as that found in commercial aviation. LOSA samples all activities in normal operations, as well as problems encountered during the flight and how the crew managed those problems. According to AC 120-90, LOSA is important for the following reasons (FAA, 2006d, pp. 3–4):

·       Threats in the airline’s operating environment can be more readily identified.

·       Threats from within the airline’s operations can be identified.

·       The degree of transference of training to the line can be assessed.

·       The quality and usability of procedures, such as crew callouts, can be checked. Problems in the human/machine interface can be more readily identified.

·        Pilot shortcuts and workarounds can be identified.

·        Safety margins can be assessed.

·       A baseline for organizational change can be determined.

·        A rationale for the allocation of resources can be determined.

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