Line Operations Safety
Audit In a Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA), highly trained observers ride in the jumpseat of an air carrier during routine scheduled ﬂights for the purpose of collecting safety-related data on ﬂightcrew performance, environmental conditions, and operational factors (FAA, 2006d). The program relies on conﬁdential data collection and non-jeopardy for ﬂight crewmembers; that is, assurance that action will not be taken against those individuals observed to commit errors.
LOSA is based on a Threat and Error Management (TEM) model, which is a conceptual framework for understanding operational performance in complex environments such as that found in commercial aviation. LOSA samples all activities in normal operations, as well as problems encountered during the ﬂight and how the crew managed those problems. According to AC 120-90, LOSA is important for the following reasons (FAA, 2006d, pp. 3–4):
· Threats in the airline’s operating environment can be more readily identiﬁed.
· Threats from within the airline’s operations can be identiﬁed.
· The degree of transference of training to the line can be assessed.
· The quality and usability of procedures, such as crew callouts, can be checked. Problems in the human/machine interface can be more readily identiﬁed.
· Pilot shortcuts and workarounds can be identiﬁed.
· Safety margins can be assessed.
· A baseline for organizational change can be determined.
· A rationale for the allocation of resources can be determined.