The programs commonly accepted as having directly resulted from, or beneﬁted from, the 1995 Aviation Safety Summit, and are considered to be a part of proactive safety are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Advanced Qualiﬁcation Program
Advanced Qualiﬁcation Program (AQP) changed the paradigm in airline ﬂight training from a programmed-hours-of-instruction model to a train-to-proﬁciency model (FAA, 2006c). Central to the functioning of an AQP program is the Pilot Proﬁciency Database (PPDB). The PPDB is the repository for measures of pilot performance during training sessions. A requirement for every AQP program is the demonstration by the airline that it conducts regular analysis of this aggregate data to determine trends, and make appropriate modiﬁcations to the training program when necessary. Also required is the deﬁnition of mechanisms that incorporate into the training curricula lessons learned in other safety oversight programs.
Air Transport Oversight System
Air Transport Oversight System (ATOS) was a major change in the way the FAA conducts its oversight responsibilities (FAA, 2006a). Airline operations are divided into seven systems, based on processes rather than departments. Safety Attribute Inspections look at written procedures and determine whether important traits such as responsibility, authority, controls, process measurements, etc., are deﬁned, and compliance with these requirements is measured in a standardized way. Similarly, Element Performance Inspections are accomplished to assure operational behavior is consistent with procedures and regulations. Both measures are entered into a national ATOS Database for aggregate analysis.